Optimization of Phosphoric Acid Treatment Biochar using Response Surface Method
Biochar is derived from the crop residue as a multifunctional materials for agricultural applications and as a soil enhancer to improve soil fertility. The physical and chemical properties of biochar are improved via phosphoric acid treatment. The aim of this study is to optimize the acid treatment of biochar for two factor; 1) concentration of phosphoric acid and 2) heating temperature via Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by using Design Expert 10 software. A set of 11 experiments were carried out based on Central Composite Design (CCD) with three repetitions at center point. Hence, the responses were set in two factors; 1) pH and 2) negative surface charge. The biochar produced from slow pyrolysis process of rubber wood sawdust (RWSD) in a horizontal tube furnace heated at 5⁰C/minute from room temperature to maximum temperature of 400⁰C with holding time of 1 hour. Characterization of treated biochar was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and SEM with EDX. Analysis of variance of the pH and negative surface charge indicated that the selected quartic model was significant with p-value of <0.05. Predicted parameters to obtain the maximum negative surface charge were 1 Mol of acid concentration and 85⁰C of heating temperature with desirability of 98%.
J. Lehmann and S. Joseph, “Biochar for Environmental Management : An Introduction,” Science Technology, vol. 1, pp. 1–12, 2009.
W. T. Tsai, M. K. Lee and Y. M. Chang, “Fast pyrolysis of rice husk: Product yields and compositions,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 22–28, 2007.
C. J. Atkinson, J. D. Fitzgerald and N. A. Hipps, “Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: A review,” Plant and Soil, vol. 337, no. 1. pp. 1–18, 2010.
J. Major, C. Steiner, A. Downie and J. Lehmann, “Biochar effects on nutrient leaching,” Biochar Environment Management Science Technology, vol. 6, no. 3 pp. 271–287, 2009.
S. P. Sohi, E. Krull, E. Lopez-Capel and R. Bol, “A review of biochar and its use and function in soil,” Advanced Agronomy, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 47–82, 2010.
H. O. Buckman and N. C. Brady, "The nature and properties of soils," Soil Science, vol. 90, no. 3, 1960.
A. Shaaban, S.M. Se, M. F. Dimin, J. M. Juoi, M. Haizal, M. Husin, N. Merry and M. Mitan, “Influence of heating temperature and holding time on biochars derived from rubber wood sawdust via slow pyrolysis,” Journal Analytical Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 107, pp. 31–39, 2014.
R. Yang, G. Liu, X. Xu, M. Li, J. Zhang and X. Hao, “Surface texture, chemistry and adsorption properties of acid blue 9 of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) bast-based activated carbon fibers prepared by phosphoric acid activation,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 437–445, 2011.
Y. Lin, P. Munroe, S. Joseph, R. Henderson and A. Ziolkowski, “Chemosphere Water extractable organic carbon in untreated and chemical treated biochars,” Chemosphere, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2012.
S. M. Taha, M. E. Amer, A. E. Elmarsafy and M. Y. Elkady, “Adsorption of 15 different pesticides on untreated and phosphoric acid treated biochar and charcoal from water,” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 2, pp. 2013-2025, 2014.
S. A. Doydora, M. L. Cabrera, K. C. Das, J. W. Gaskin, L. S. Sonon and W. P. Miller, “Release of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Poultry Litter Amended with Acidified Biochar,” International Journal Environment Research, vol. 8, pp. 1491–1502, 2011.
H. P. Boehm, “Some aspects of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other carbons,” Carbon, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 759–769, 1994.
J. M. Novak, I. Lima, B. Xing, J. W. Gaskin, C. Steiner, K. C. Das, M. Ahmedna, D. Rehrah, D. W. Watts, W. J. Busscher and H. Schomberg, “Characterization of Designer Biochar Produced at Different Temperatures and their Effects on a Loamy Sand,” Annals of Environment Science, vol. 3, pp. 195–206, 2009.
I. M. Lima and W. E. Marshall, “Granular activated carbons from broiler manure: Physical, chemical and adsorptive properties,” Bioresources Technology, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 699–706, 2005.
A.M. Joglekar and A.T. May, “Product excellence through design of experiments,” Cereal Food World, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 857- 868, 1987.
B. Alberts, A. Johnson, J. Lewis, D. Morgan, K. Roberts and P. Walter, Molecular biology of the cell, 6th Edition. New York: Garland Science, 2012.
A. Mukherjee, A. R. Zimmerman and W. Harris, “Surface chemistry variations among a series of laboratory-produced biochars,” Geoderma, vol. 163, no. 3–4, pp. 247–255, 2011.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors transfer copyright to the publisher as part of a journal publishing agreement with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after the manuscript is accepted, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).