A Study on Surface Roughness During Fused Deposition Modelling: A Review
Rapid Prototyping (RP) is technology used to produce a physical model or prototype directly from three-dimensional Computer-Aided-Design (3D CAD) data in a very short time. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is a process for developing RP objects from plastic material by laying tracks of semi molten plastic filament on to a platform in precise layers from bottom to top. RP has been extensively used by manufacturers from different backgrounds to accelerate their product development and cycle time without neglecting product quality. In the RP process, surface finish is an important criterion as it can influence the part precision, post-handling expenses and functionality of the part. This paper presents a review of current studies on surface roughness using FDM. This paper also highlights design of experiments (DOE) and its association with surface finish.
N.R. Posinasetti, Manufacturing Technology, Foundry, Forming and Welding, 4th Edition. New Delhi: McGraw Hill, 2013.
Wohlers Report. (2015). Estimated Breakdown of Worldwide 3D Printing Use in 2014 [Online]. Available: http://www.williams3d.com.au.
H. Boejang, M. Sharil and M.F. Basar, Time Compression Technologies for Engineering Technology. Melaka: Penerbit Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, 2013.
D.V. Mahindru and P. Mahendru, “Review of rapid prototyping-technology for the future,” Global Journal Computer Science Technololgy, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 27–38, 2013.
G.N. Levy, R. Schindel, and J.P. Kruth, “Rapid manufacturing and rapid tooling with layer manufacturing (LM) technologies, state of the art and future perspectives,” CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 589–609, 2007.
A. Rosochowski and A. Matuszak, “Rapid tooling: the state of the art,” Journal Material Processes Technology, vol. 106, no. 1–3, pp. 191–198, 2000.
T.S. Raol, K.G. Dave, D.B. Patel, and V.N. Talati, “An experimental investigation of effect of process parameters on surface roughness of fused deposition modeling built parts,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 2270–2274, 2014.
L. Novakova-Marcincinova, “Application of fused deposition modeling technology in 3d printing rapid prototyping area,” Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 35–37, 2012.
Filaments.ca. (2016), Starter Printer & Temperature Guide [Online]. Available: https://filaments.ca/pages/temperature-guide.
LulzBot. (2014), 3D Printing Filament Guide [Online]. Available: https://devel.lulzbot.com/graphics/propaganda/filament_guide/LulzBot_3D_Printing_Filament_Guide.pdf.
C.K. Chua, K.F. Leong, and C.S. Lim, Rapid Prototyping: Principles and Applications, 3rd Edition. New York: World Scientific, 2010.
D. Yagnik, “Fused deposition modeling – a rapid prototyping technique for product cycle time reduction cost effectively in aerospace applications,” Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, vol. 1, no.14, pp. 62–68, 2014.
P. Vijay, P. Danaiah, and K. V. D. Rajesh, “Critical parameters effecting the rapid prototyping surface finish,” Journal Mechanical Engineering Automation, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 17–20, 2011.
A. K. Sood, R. K. Ohdar, and S. S. Mahapatra, “Experimental investigation and empirical modelling of FDM process for compressive strength improvement,” Journal Advanced Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 81–90, 2012.
V. K. Vashishtha, “Advancement of rapid prototyping in aerospace industry -a review,” International Journal Science and Technolology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 2486–2493, 2011.
N. M. Thoppil and K. Subbu, “Application of Rapid Prototyping in Aerospace Industry,” in Rapid Manufacturing Processes, Warangal, India, 2014, pp. 1-11.
S. Maidin, M. K. Muhamad, and E. Pei, “Experimental setup for ultrasonic-assisted desktop fused deposition modeling system,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 761. pp. 324–328, 2015.
M. Treglia. (2015). Understanding Design of Experiments [Online]. Available: https://www.qualitydigest.com/inside/quality-insider-article/understanding-design experiments. html#
B. Vasudevarao, D.P. Natarajan, M.R. Henderson and A. Razdan, “Sensitivitiy of RP Surface Finish to Process Parameter Variation,” in Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium Proceeding, 2000, pp. 251–258.
S. Onagoruwa, S. Bose, and A. Bandyopadhyay, “Fused deposition of ceramics (FDC) and composites,” in Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium Proceeding, Texas, 2001, pp. 224–231.
M.J. Anderson and P.J. Whitcomb, DOE Simplified Second Edition. Minneapolis: Productivity Press, 2007.
M.Y. Noordin, V.C. Venkatesh, S. Sharif, S. Elting, and A. Abdullah, “Application of response surface methodology in describing the performance of coated carbide tools when turning AISI 1045 steel,” Journal Materials Processing Technology, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 46–58, J2004.
D. C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 7th Edition. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2009.
R. Anitha, S. Arunachalam, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Critical parameters influencing the quality of prototypes in fused deposition modelling,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 118, no. 1–3, pp. 385–388, 2001.
T. Nancharaiah, D. R. Raju, and V. R. Raju, “An experimental investigation on surface quality and dimensional accuracy of FDM components,” International Journal Emerging Technolology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 106–111, 2010.
R.V. Rao, Advanced Modeling and Optimization of Manufacturing Processes. London: Springer, 2011.
S.O. Akande, “Dimensional accuracy and surface finish optimization of fused deposition modelling parts using desirability function analysis”, International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 196–202, 2015.
N. J. Krishna, “Improving the surface roughness of FDM parts by using hybrid methods,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technolology, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 650–654, 2014.
V.S Jadhav and S.R. Wankhade, “A review- fused deposition modeling - a rapid prototyping process,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 4, pp. 523-527, 2017.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors transfer copyright to the publisher as part of a journal publishing agreement with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after the manuscript is accepted, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).