• F.H. Suzaim
  • Z.M. Rosli
  • J.M. Juoi
  • T. Moriga Tokushima University
Keywords: Brookite, Spin-Coating, Photocatalytic, Hydrophilicity


Brookite has been rarely used and always exits as a by-product of TiO2. Until recently, there are limited studied concerned with the preparation of brookite coating. In this paper, the main objective of producing pure brookite coating from a specially synthesized sol without using solvent for photo-induced hydrophilicity is reported. The TiO2 coatings were deposited on a glass substrate via a spin coating method at various temperatures (200 ⁰C, 300 ⁰C, and 400 ⁰C) and soaked for 3 hours. Coatings characteristic were evaluated using XRD and Raman spectroscopy. For the photocatalytic and photo-induced hydrophilicity performance, a color degradation technique of methylene blue (MB) and water contact angle measurement (CA) was utilized respectively. The test was done under UV light irradiation for 5 hours. The XRD results revealed a single peak denoted to brookite (B 111) with an orthorhombic structure was formed at 31.9° throughout all temperatures with an average crystallite size of 41 nm to 58 nm. Further analysis using Raman spectroscopy also indicated that the deposited TiO2 coatings are brookite. Results of the band gap analysis also proved that the obtained values are in agreement with the value of brookite phase. Thus, it can be confirmed that the TiO2 coatings deposited from the synthesized sol are brookite coatings. It is found that the brookite TiO2 coating deposited at 400 0C is the best to possess well-balanced properties for self-cleaning application.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

T. Moriga, Tokushima University

3Department of Chemical Science and Technology, Graduate School of Advanced Technology and Science, Tokushima University, 2-1 Minami-Josanjima,

770-8506, Tokushima, Japan.


[1] M. Addamo, M. Bellardita, A. Di Paola, and L. Palmisano, “Preparation and photoactivity of nanostructured anatase, rutile and brookite TiO2 thin films”, Chemical Communications, vol. 47, pp. 4943-4945, 2006.

[2] H.T.T. Tran, H. Kosslic, M.F. Ibad, C. Fischer, U. Bentrup, T.H. Vuong, L.Q. Nguyen and A. Schulz, “Photocatalytic performance of highly active brookite in the degradation of hazardous organic compounds compared to anatase and rutile”, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 200, pp. 647-658, 2017.

[3] A. Eshaghi, and A. Eshaghi, “Effect of crystal structure on photoinduced superhydrophilicity of copper grafted TiO2 nanostructure thin film”, Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 59-63, 2013.

[4] L. Bergamonti, I. Alfieri, A. Lorenzi, A. Montenero, G. Predieri, R. Di Maggio, F. Girardi, L. Lazzarini and P.P. Lottici, “Characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by sol–gel in acid and basic environments”, Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 91-102, 2015.

[5] L. Zhang, R. Dillert, D. Bahnemann and M. Vormoor, “Photo-induced hydrophilicity and self-cleaning: models and reality”, Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 7491-7507, 2012.

[6] M. Machida, M. Kobayashi and Y. Suzuki, “Photo-induced hydrophilicity of brookite TiO2 prepared by hydrothermal conversion from Mg2TiO4”, Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 61-65, 2018.

[7] D.U. Jun, W.U. Qi, S. Zhong, G.U. Xin, L.I.U. Jiao, G.U.O. Haizhi, W. Zhang, P.E.N.G. Hailong, and Z.O.U. Jianguo, “Effect of hydroxyl groups on hydrophilic and photocatalytic activities of rare earth doped titanium dioxide thin films”, Journal of Rare Earths, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 148-153, 2015.

[8] K. Guan, “Relationship between photocatalytic activity, hydrophilicity and self-cleaning effect of TiO2/SiO2 films”, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 191, no. 2-3, pp. 155-160, 2005.

[9] M. Lahav and L. Leiserowitz, “The effect of solvent on crystal growth and morphology”, Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 2245-2253, 2001.

[10] P. Ramakoteswararao, S.L. Tulasi and Y. Pavani, “Impacts of solvents on environmental pollution”, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Studies, vol. 3, pp. 132-135, 2014.

[11] S.A. Yazid, Z.M. Rosli, and J.M. Juoi, “Effect of titanium (iv) isopropoxide molarity on the crystallinity and photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide thin film deposited via green sol-gel route”, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1434–1439, 2019.

[12] N.D. Johari, Z.M. Rosli, J.M. Juoi and S.A. Yazid, “Comparison on the TiO2 crystalline phases deposited via dip and spin coating using green sol–gel route”, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 2350-2358, 2019.

[13] D. Komaraiah, P. Madhukar, Y. Vijayakumar, M.V.R. Reddy, and R. Sayanna, “Photocatalytic degradation study of methylene blue by brookite TiO2 thin film under visible light irradiation”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 3770–3778, 2016.

[14] M.N. Iliev, V.G. Hadjiev, and A.P. Litvinchuk, “Raman and infrared spectra of brookite (TiO2): experiment and theory”, Vibrational Spectroscopy, vol. 64, pp. 148-152, 2013.

[15] D. Berrsani, P.P. Lottici, and X.Z. Ding, “Phonon confinement effects in the raman scattering by TiO2 nanocrystals”, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 72, no. 1, pp.73-75, 1998.

[16] X. Wang, G. Wu, B. Zhou, and J. Shen, “Thermal annealing effect on optical properties of binary TiO2-SiO2 sol-gel coatings”, Materials, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 76-84, 2013.

[17] C.P. Lin, H. Chen, A. Nakaruk, P. Koshy and C.C. Sorrell, C.C., “Effect of annealing temperature on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films”, Energy Procedia, vol. 34, pp. 627-636, 2013.

[18] G.L. Tian, H.B. He, and J.D. Shao, “Effect of microstructure of TiO2 thin films on optical band gap energy”. Chinese Physics Letters, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1787-1789, 2005.

[19] U.O.A. Arier, and F.Z. Tepehan, “Influence of heat treatment on the particle size of nanobrookite TiO2 thin films produced by sol-gel method”, Surface & Coatings Technology, vol. 206, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 2011.

[20] A.A. Ashkarran, and M.R. Mohammadizadeh, “The effect of heat treatment on superhydrophilicity of TiO2 nano thin films”, The European Physical Journal Applied Physics, vol. 40, no. 2, pp.155-162, 2007.

[21] K.Y. Law, “Definitions for hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, and superhydrophobicity: Getting The Basics Right”, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 686–688, 2014.

[22] A.B.D. Nandiyanto, R. Zaen and R. Oktiani, “Correlation between crystallite size and photocatalytic performance of micrometer-sized monoclinic WO3 particles”, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, pp. 1878-1892, 2017.

[23] M.E. Simonsen, Z. Li, and E.G. Sogaard, “Influence of the OH groups on the photocatalytic activity and photoinduced hydrophilicity of microwave assisted sol–gel TiO2 film”. Applied Surface Science, vol. 255, no. 18, pp. 8054-8062, 2009.

[24] J. Yu, C.Y. Jimmy, W. Ho, and Z. Jiang, “Effects of calcination temperature on the photocatalytic activity and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity of mesoporous TiO2 thin films”. New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 607-613, 2002.

[25] N. Smirnova, T. Fesenko, M. Zhukovsky, J. Goworek and A. Eremenko, “Photodegradation of stearic acid adsorbed on superhydrophilic TiO2 surface: in situ FT-IR and LDI study”, Nanoscale Research Letters, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 500-507, 2015.
How to Cite
Suzaim, F., Rosli, Z., Juoi, J., & Moriga, T. (2019). EFFECT OF HEATING TEMPERATURE ON BROOKITE TIO2 SOL-GEL COATING FOR PHOTO-INDUCED HYDROPHILICITY. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (JAMT), 13(3). Retrieved from https://jamt.utem.edu.my/jamt/article/view/5742

Most read articles by the same author(s)