• S. Miyajima
  • S. Yamada
  • T. Yamada
  • M. Inoue


To achieve sustainable consumption and production, designers and manufacturers should provide  inexpensive products that create a low environmental load on the user. Accordingly, products and their components should exhibit a modular design, which can be achieved by considering some factors such as future reuse, remanufacturing, and upgrading. Modular design methods primarily focus to reduce the lead time or costs associated with designing an entire family of products. However, resource efficiency is an important consideration associated with reuse as well as with the production and procurement stages of manufacturing. Hence, proper supplier selection is crucial because new products comprise several components and modules supplied by various manufacturers. So, this paper proposes a modular design method and strategy based on supply chain management. Especially, the proposed method evaluates a modular design strategy based on the cost, environmental load in transportation, quality, and procurement lead time. After deriving modular architecture candidates by Design Structure Matrix clustering that divide functionally closer parts into groups, a proposed indicator is used to evaluate the efficiency of the candidates based on the modular architectures and suppliers. This study applies the proposed method to design a laptop computer and derives an appropriate modular architecture and suppliers with respect to each destination.


Download data is not yet available.


European Commission. (2018). Circular Economy Implementation of the Circular Economy Action Plan [Online]. Available:

Sustainability Design Institute. (2017). Global Multi Value Circulation (in Japanese) [Online]. Available:

S.A. Nelson, M.B. Parkinson and P.Y. Papalambros, “Multicriteria optimization in product platform design”, Journal of Mechanical Design, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 119-204, 2001.

K. Fujita and H. Sakaguchi, “Optimization methodologies for product variety design: Second report optimization method for module commonalization)”, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series C, vol. 68, no. 666, pp. 683-691, 2002.

K. Oizumi, K. Aruga and K. Aoyama. “Module commonization in product family incorporating fine-tune improvement”, Transactions of the JSME (in Japanese), vol. 82, no. 843, pp. 1-16, 2016.

M.E. Sosa, S.D. Eppinger and C.M. Rowles, “Identifying modular and integrative systems and their impact on design team interactions”, Journal of Mechanical Design, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 240-252, 2003.

S.D. Eppinger and T.R. Browning, Design Structure Matrix Methods and Applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.

S. Hino, Practical Modular Design (in Japanese). Tokyo: Nikkei BP, 2009.

Y. Yoshizaki, T. Yamada, N. Itsubo and M. Inoue, “Material based low-carbon and economic supplier selection with estimation of GHG emissions and affordable cost increment for parts production among multiple Asian countries”, Journal of Japan Industrial Management Association, vol. 66, no. 4E, pp. 435-442, 2016.

H.S. Loo, B.C. Chew and S.R. Hamid, “Exploring the factors and strategies in implementation of sustainable land transport system in Ayer Keroh, Melaka”, Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 159-174, 2018.

K. Kokubu, N. Itsubo, M. Nakajima and T. Yamada, “Constructing low-carbon supply chain in Asia and the role of accounting (in Japanese)”, Kaikei (Accounting), vol. 182, no. 1, pp. 82-97, 2012.

K. Horiguchi, M. Tsujimoto, H. Yamaguchi and N. Itsubo, “Development of greenhouse gases emission intensity in Eastern Asia using Asian International input-output table”, in the 7th Meeting of the Institute of Life Cycle Assessment, Japan, 2012, pp. 236-239.

T. Urata, T. Yamada, N. Itsubo and M. Inoue, “Global supply chain network design and Asian analysis with material-based carbon emissions and tax”, Computers & Industrial Engineering, vol. 113, pp. 779-792, 2017.

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Japan. (2012). Carbon footprint of products system trial project CO2 reduced quantity common basic unit database (domestic data) [Online]. Available:

How to Cite
Miyajima, S., Yamada, S., Yamada, T., & Inoue, M. (1). PROPOSAL OF A MODULAR DESIGN METHOD CONSIDERING SUPPLY CHAIN: COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION BY ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD, COST, QUALITY, AND LEAD TIME. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (JAMT), 13(1), 119-132. Retrieved from