ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG) APPLICATION ON QUANTIFYING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE DURING MEDITATION
Humans have two distinctive quotients that need to be considered such as Emotional Quotient (EQ) and Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Emotional quotient is also known as Emotional Intelligence (EI) which can be defined as the ability of a person on how they understand themselves and handle their emotion, as well as understanding society around them. Quantifying EI is an issue that has attracted various field of work. This manuscript aims to investigate the relation of EI in meditation using the human electroencephalogram (EEG) device. Low-cost 16 electrodes Emotiv Epoch neuroheadset was used in this study. A stimulus on a Quran recitation audio-visual was setup as the meditation intervention. The EEG signal obtained from this experiment showed that the Power Spectral Densities (PSD) of alpha brainwaves on the right frontal lobe were gradually reduced when the subjects are watching and listening to the Quran recitation’s video. Hence, the negative feelings were reduced which indicated that the participants are emotionally stable. This finding may suggest that humans are prone to relax when the Quran is being recited repeatedly. This finding further confirms that Quran recitation correlate with the self-awareness and self-regulate attributes of EI. Additionally, differences in response were observed from the male and female subjects.
P. Salovey and J.D. Mayer, “Emotional Intelligence”, Imagination, Cognition and Personality, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 185-211, 1990.
J.D. Mayer, P. Salovey, D. R. Caruso, and L. Cherkasskiy, “Emotional Intelligence,” in The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence, R. J. Sternberg and S. B. Kaufman, Eds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 528–549.
N. Jatupaiboon, S. Pan-ngum, and P. Israsena. "Emotion classification using minimal EEG channels and frequency bands", in 10th International Joint Conference, Maha Sarakham, Thailand, 2013, pp. 21-24.
K.C. Tseng, B.S. Lin, C.M. Han, and P.S. Wang "Emotion recognition of EEG underlying favourite music by support vector machine", in 1st International Conference on Orange Technologies, Tainan, Taiwan, 2013, pp. 155-158.
M. Alsolamy and F. Anas, "Emotion estimation from EEG signals during listening to Quran using PSD features", in The 7th International Conference on Computer Science & Information Technology, Amman, Jordan, 2016, pp. 1-5.
C.W.E.M. Quaedflieg, F.T.Y. Smulders, T. Meyer, F. Peeters, H. Merckelbach and T. Smeets. "The validity of individual frontal alpha asymmetry EEG neurofeedback", Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, vol.11, no. 1, pp. 33-43, 2015.
S. Hamann and T. Canli, “Individual differences in emotion processing,” Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 233–238, 2004.
M. Moïra, K. Bodarwé, O. Laloyaux, M. Hansenne, and D. Nelis. "Association between frontal EEG asymmetries and emotional intelligence among adults", Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 177-181, 2010.
Q. Zhang, and N. Yoshimine, “A study on human brain activity during music listening using EEG measurement”, Tama University School of Global Studies Bulletin, vol. 8, pp.149-157, 2015.
Y.P. Lin, C.H. Wang, T.P. Jung, T.L. Wu, S.Y. Jeng, J.R. Duann, and J.H. Chen. "EEG-based emotion recognition in music listening", IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1798-1806, 2010.
N.A. Zulkurnaini, R.S.S. Abdul Kadir, Z. Murat, and R. Mohd Isa. "The comparison between listening to al-Quran and listening to classical music on the brainwave signal for the alpha band", in Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems Modelling and Simulation, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 2012, pp. 181-186.
S.A. Al-Galal and I.F.T. Alshaikhli. "Analyzing brainwaves while listening to quranic recitation compared with listening to music based on EEG signals", International Journal on Perceptive and Cognitive Computing, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2017.
A.A. Abdullah and Z. Omar. "The effect of temporal EEG signals while listening to Quran recitation", International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 372-375, 2011.
N.F. Kamal, N.H. Mahmood, and N.A. Zakaria. "Modeling brain activities during reading working memory task: Comparison between reciting Quran and reading book", Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 97, pp. 83-89, 2013.
E.G. Nayef and M.N.A. Wahab, “The effect of recitation quran on the human emotions,” International Journal of Academy Research Business and Social Science, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 50–70, 2018.
K. Pérez-Edgar, A. Kujawa, S.K. Nelson, C. Cole and D.J. Zapp. "The relation between electroencephalogram asymmetry and attention biases to threat at baseline and under stress", Brain and cognition, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 337-343, 2013.
N. Behboodin, M. Kamal, K. Natsume and T. Kitajima, “Frequency analysis of brain signals for biometric application”, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 118 no. 24, pp. 1-14, 2018.