Optimization of Drill Geometry Design to Minimize Thermal Necrosis in Surgical Bone Drilling

  • R. Izamshah
  • M.S. Noorazizi
  • M.S. Kasim
  • M. Hadzley
  • M.A. Ali
  • S.A. Sundi


During the orthopedic bone drilling surgery procedures, the friction between the drill and bones surface leads to a localized temperature increase results in thermal necrosis on the soft tissue surrounding the hole. The magnitudes of the friction energy are greatly dependent with the drill geometry design. Recognizing the importance on studying this phenomenon, this paper aim to investigate the effects of drill geometry on temperatures during the bone drilling procedure. Totals of 17 drills were design and tested with different geometry namely point angle, helix angle and web thickness on different penetration angle (0⁰, 15⁰, and 30⁰) to mimic the manually control penetration by the surgeon. From the conducted investigation, the most significant parameter that affects the temperature rise was the penetration angle followed by the point angle. In addition, the interaction between helix angle and web thickness also controlled the drilling temperature. From the result, the optimum drill-bit design geometry was 21.8% web thickness, 126.92° point angle and 36.53° helix angle which produces the minimum drilling temperature.


Download data is not yet available.


T. Udiljak, D. Ciglar, and S. Skoric, “Investigation into bone drilling and thermal bone necrosis”, Advanced Production Engineering and Management, vol. 2, pp. 103–112, 2007.

K. Alam, M. Khan, R. Muhammad, SZ, Qamar, and V.V.Silberschmidt, “In-vitro experimental analysis and numerical study of temperature in bone drilling,” Technology and Health Care, vol. 23, no.6, pp. 775-783, 2015.

M.T. Hillery and I. Shuaib, “The drilling of bone using guide wires and twist drills,” IMC-13, Ireland, pp. 33-42, 1996.

R. K. Pandey and S. S. Panda, “Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review,” Journal Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma, vol. 4, no.1, pp. 15-30, 2013.

T. Ueda, A. Wada, and K. Hasegawa, “Design optimization of surgical drills using the Taguchi method”, Journal Biomech Science Engineering, vol. 5, no.5, pp. 603-614, 2010.

R. Izamshah, M. A. Azam, M. Hadzley, M.A. Md Ali, M.S. Kasim, and M.S. Abdul Aziz, “Study of surface roughness on milling unfilled-polyetheretherketones engineering plastics,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 68, pp. 654-660, 2013.

G. Augustin, T. Zigman, S. Davila, T. Udilijak, T. Staroveski, D. Brezak and S. Babic., “Cortical bone drilling and thermal osteonecrosis,” Clinical Biomechanics, vol. 27, no.4, pp. 313-325, 2012.

R. Eriksson and R. Adell, “Temperature during drilling for placement of implants using osseointegration technique,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofac Surgery, vol. 44, no.1, pp. 4–7, 1986.

M. B. Abouzgia and D. F. James, “Temperature rise during drilling through bone,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, vol. 12, no 3, pp. 342-353, 1997.

M.A. Amran, S. Salmah, NIS Hussein, R. Izamshah, M. Hadzley, MS Kasim and M.A. Sulaiman, “Effects of machine parameters on surface roughness using response surface method in drilling process”, Procedia Engineering, vol. 68, pp. 24-29, 2013.

R. K. Pandey and S. S. Panda, “Evaluation of delamination in drilling of bone,” Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 37, no.7, pp. 657-664, 2015.

S.A. Hussein, A.S.M. Tahir, and R. Izamshah, “Generated forces and heat during the critical stages of friction stir welding and processing,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 29, no.10, pp. 4319-4328, 2015.

D. Vashishth, K.E. Tanner and W. Bonfield, “Contribution, development and morphology of microcracking in cortical bone during crack propagation,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol 33, pp. 1169-1174, 2000.

Z. Liao and D. A. Axinte, “On monitoring chip formation, penetration depth and cutting malfunctions in bone micro-drilling via acoustic emission,” Journal of Materials Processing Techonolgy, vol. 229, pp. 82-93, 2016.

Y Hu, Q Zhang, and X Yue, “Study on the prediction of drilling forces on cortical bone based on finite element simulation”, Key Engineering Material, vol. 589, pp. 157–162, 2014.

How to Cite
Izamshah, R., Noorazizi, M., Kasim, M., Hadzley, M., Ali, M., & Sundi, S. (1). Optimization of Drill Geometry Design to Minimize Thermal Necrosis in Surgical Bone Drilling. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (JAMT), 12(1(2), 425-436. Retrieved from https://jamt.utem.edu.my/jamt/article/view/4297