Evaluation of Menu Hierarchy Display Types in Self-Checkout System: Effects on Human Performance

  • N. Ahmad
  • R.Z. Radin Umar
  • I. Halim
  • M.S.S. Mohamed
  • M. R. Jamli
  • M. S. Baharudin
  • M. Hamid


Over the past few years, the retail industry especially in the US and UK supermarkets, has been experiencing a shift towards the self-checkout technology. Unfortunately, the self-checkout system is still far from perfect. There are many technological problems and design flaws that often irritate many shoppers such as the difficulty to find the item in the look-up directory. Menu hierarchy is one of the menu selection systems that is commonly used for many applications. The objective of this paper is to investigate the two types of menu hierarchy displays in the retail self-checkout system –graphical and non-graphical– and their effects on the human performance. The comparison between the two display types were made using the t-test by evaluating the completion time of the menu selections, the number of eye fixation and human errors made. The scope of this study is limited to the menu selection for produce items that need to be weighed at checkout. The study finds that there is not enough statistical evidence to conclude that the menu hierarchy system with the graphical display will result in faster performance in the retail self-checkout system than the one without the graphical display.


Download data is not yet available.


F. D. Orel and A. Kara, “Supermarket self-checkout service quality, customer satisfaction, and loyalty: Empirical evidence from an emerging market,” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 118-129, 2014.

I. Anitsal and R.C. Paige, “An exploratory study on consumer perceptions of service quality in technology-based self-service,” Services Marketing Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 53-67, 2006.

J. M. Curran and M. L. Meuter, “Self-service technology adoption: comparing three technologies,” Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 103-113, 2005.

T. Fernandes and R. Pedroso, “The effect of self-checkout quality on customer satisfaction and repatronage in a retail context,” Service Business, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 69-92, 2017.

P.A. Dabholkar, L. Michelle Bobbitt and E.J. Lee, “Understanding consumer motivation and behavior related to self-scanning in retailing: Implications for strategy and research on technology-based self-service,” International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 59-95, 2003.

D. F. Carr, “Gotcha! The problems with self-service checkout systems,” Baseline, vol. 1, no. 27, pp. 34, 2004.

M. Serbu. (2013). The pros and cons of using self-checkouts (1st ed.) [Online]. Available: http://www.business.org

M. J. Bitner, A. L. Ostrom and M. L. Meuter, “Implementing successful self-service technologies,” The Academy of Management Executive, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 96-108, 2002.

G. E. Burnett, G. Lawson, R. Donkor and Y. Kuriyagawa, “Menu hierarchies for in-vehicle user-interfaces: Modelling the depth vs. breadth trade-off,” Displays, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 241-249, 2013.

K. L. Norman, The Psychology of Menu Selection: Designing Cognitive Control at the Human/Computer Interface. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex, 1991.

K. H. E. Tang, “Menu design with visual momentum for compact smart products. Human factors,” The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 267-277, 2001.

H. Jeffrey, B. Michael and O. Vadim, “A Tour through the visualization zoo,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 56-67, 2010.

D. D Woods, “Visual momentum: a concept to improve the cognitive coupling of person and computer,” International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 229-244, 1984.

M. Masoodian and N. Lane, “An empirical study of textual and graphical travel itinerary visualization using mobile phones,” in The Fourth Australasian User Interface, Adelaide, 2003, pp. 11-18.

A. Voßkühler, V. Nordmeier, L. Kuchinke and A. Jacob, “OGAMA (Open Gaze and Mouse Analyzer): open-source software designed to analyze eye and mouse movements in slideshow study designs,” Behavior Research Methods, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1150-1162, 2008.

How to Cite
Ahmad, N., Radin Umar, R., Halim, I., Mohamed, M., Jamli, M. R., Baharudin, M. S., & Hamid, M. (1). Evaluation of Menu Hierarchy Display Types in Self-Checkout System: Effects on Human Performance. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (JAMT), 12(1(1), 371-382. Retrieved from https://jamt.utem.edu.my/jamt/article/view/4006