Joining of Thin Plates Using Various Arc Welding Heat Sources – A Review
Advancements and improvements in welding processes are mostly to expand profitability without losing the nature of the weldment. In order to protect the quality and the cost, using light material has become an interest among industries. One of the purpose of the developments in thin plate welding technology is to minimize the cost and the weight. The main objective of the current study to investigates the current status of thin plates joining using arc welding as the heat sources for common method variance in research and assists researchers in taking appropriate actions. Welding distortion resulted from residual stress and it can cause problems in terms of dimensional tolerance and manufacturing integrity in the assembled structure. In this paper, methods for thin plate welding process were reviewed and it was evident that numerical modeling and experimental has been employed on evaluation of welding parameters and its effect to the weld performance and characteristic. This paper also aims at outlining the recent findings from similar and dissimilar material, laser welding, TIG and MIG welding in regards to the thin plate welding. The most significant findings emerged from this study is that output responses related to heat source, deformation of welded joint, thermal and physical properties. Some recommendations and future research methods are also proposed.
D. Deng and H. Murakawa, “Prediction of welding distortion and residual stress in a thin plate butt-welded joint,” Computational Materials Science, vol. 43, no. 2. pp. 353–365, 2008.
N. Arif and H. Chung, “Alternating current-gas metal arc welding for application to thin plates,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 214, pp. 1828–1837, 2014.
H. Long, D. Gerry, A. Carlier and P. G. Maropoulos, “Prediction of welding distortion in butt joint of thin plates,” Materials and Design, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 4126–4135, 2009.
D. Klobčar, J. Tušek and B. Taljat, “Finite element modeling of GTA weld surfacing applied to hot-work tooling,” Computational Materials Science, vol. 31, no. 3–4, pp. 368–378, 2004.
I. Pikos, R. Kocurek and J. Adamiec, “Perspectives of Materials for Fin Tubes,” Advance Material Science, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 17–25, 2013.
P. Lu, L. H. He, H. P. Lee and C. Lu, “Thin plate theory including surface effects,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 43, no. 16, pp. 4631–4647, 2006.
C. R. Steele and C. D. Balch, “Introduction to the Theory of Plates Stretching and Bending of Plates – Fundamentals”, Stanford University, California, 2009.
C. Q. Zhang, J. D. Robson and P. B. Prangnell, “Dissimilar ultrasonic spot welding of aerospace aluminum alloy AA2139 to titanium alloy TiAl6V4,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 231, pp. 382–388, 2016.
A. Shrivastava, M. Krones and F. E. Pfefferkorn, “Comparison of energy consumption and environmental impact of friction stir welding and gas metal arc welding for aluminum,” CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science Technology, vol. 9, pp. 159–168, 2015.
C. G. G. Pickin, S. W. W. Williams and M. Lunt, “Characterization of the cold metal transfer (CMT) process and its application for low dilution cladding,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 211, no. 3, pp. 496–502, Mar. 2011.
D. Deng and H. Murakawa, “Prediction of welding distortion and residual stress in a thin plate butt-welded joint,” Computer Material Science, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 353–365, 2008.
T. Murakami, K. Nakata, H. Tong and M. Ushio, “Dissimilar Metal Joining of Aluminum to Steel by MIG Arc Brazing Using Flux Cored Wire,” ISIJ International, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 1596–1602, 2003.
V. Schultz, T. Seefeld and F. Vollertsen, “Gap bridging ability in laser beam welding of thin aluminum sheets,” Physics Procedia, vol. 56, no. C, pp. 545–553, 2014.
S. Basak, H. Das, T. K. Pal and M. Shome, “Characterization of intermetallics in aluminum to zinc coated interstitial free steel joining by pulsed MIG brazing for automotive application,” Material Characterization, vol. 112, pp. 229–237, 2016.
B. Gungor, E. Kaluc, E. Taban and A. Sik , “Mechanical and microstructural properties of robotic Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) welded 5083-H111 and 6082-T651 aluminum alloys,” Material Design, vol. 54, pp. 207–211, 2014.
C. L. Tsai, S. C. Park and W. T. Cheng, “Welding Distortion of a Thin-Plate Panel Structure,” American Welding Standard, pp. 156–165, 1999.
S. Liinalampi, H. Remes, P. Lehto, I. Lillemäe, S. Heikkilä and D. Porter, “Welding Distortion of a Thin-Plate Panel Structure,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 87, pp. 1–19, 2015.
Y. Kawahito, N. Matsumoto, Y. Abe and S. Katayama, “Relationship of laser absorption to keyhole behavior in high power fiber laser welding of stainless steel and aluminum alloy,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 211, no. 10, pp. 1563–1568, 2011.
C. Kim, J. Kim, H. Lim and J. Kim, “Investigation of laser remote welding using disc laser,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 201, no. 1–3, pp. 521–525, 2008.
S. Duhan, A. Mor and D. Malik, “Study of Angular Distortion of SS 302 and MS Plate with GTAW,” International Journal of Recent Research Aspects, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 159–163, 2015.
M. R. Atma Raj and V. M. Joy Varghese, “Determination of Distortion Developed During TIG welding of low carbon steel plate,” International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 756–767, 2014.
T. Tchoumi, F. Peyraut and R. Bolot, “Influence of the welding speed on the distortion of thin stainless-steel plates - Numerical and experimental investigations in the framework of the food industry machines,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 229, pp. 216–229, 2016.
S. A. A. Akbari Mousavi and R. Miresmaeili, “Experimental and numerical analyses of residual stress distributions in TIG welding process for 304L stainless steel,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 208, no. 1–3, pp. 383–394, 2008.
T. Rosado, P. Almeida and I. Pires, “Innovations in arc welding, 2” in Congresso de Engenharia de Moçambique, Maputo, 2008, pp. 2–4.
Lincoln Electric. (2005). Surface Tension Transfer [Online]. Available at:
Fronius. (2013). CMT: Cold Metal Transfer a hot & cold process makes [Online]. Available at:
J. Wilden, S. Jahn, S. Reich and S. Dal-Canton, “Cladding of aluminum substrates with iron based wear resistant materials using controlled short arc technology,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 202, no. 18, pp. 4509–4514, 2008.
W. Liang and H. Murakawa, “An inverse analysis method to estimate inherent deformations in thin plate welded joints,” Materials and Design, vol. 40, pp. 190–198, 2012.
J. Wang, H. Yuan, N. Ma and H. Murakawa, “Recent research on welding distortion prediction in thin plate fabrication by means of elastic FE computation,” Marine Structures, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 42–59, 2016.
D. Deng and H. Murakawa, “FEM prediction of buckling distortion induced by welding in thin plate panel structures,” Computational Materials Science, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 591–607, 2008.
M. Seyyedian Choobi, M. Haghpanahi and M. Sedighi, “Prediction of welding-induced angular distortions in thin butt-welded plates using artificial neural networks,” Computational Materials Science, vol. 62, pp. 152–159, 2012.
Y. S. Tarng, H. L. Tsai and S. S. Yeh, “Modeling, optimization and classification of weld quality in tungsten inert gas welding,” International Journal of Machine Tools Manufacture, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1427–1438, 1999.
S. C. Juang and Y. S. Tarng, “Process parameter selection for optimizing the weld pool geometry in the tungsten inert gas welding of stainless steel,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 33–37, 2002.
G. Verhaeghe, Predictive Formulae for Weld Distortion: A Critical Review. Woodhead Publishing, 1999.
R. Cao, G. Yu, J. H. Chen and P. C. Wang, “Cold metal transfer joining aluminum alloys-to-galvanized mild steel,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 213, no. 10, pp. 1753–1763, 2013.
K. Masubuchi, Analysis of Welded Structures: Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Their Consequences. Elsevier, vol. 33, 2013.
R. Wang, S. Rashed, H. Serizawa, H. Murakawa and J. Zhang, “Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Welding Deformation,” Transition of JWRI, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2008.
S. Liinalampi, H. Remes, P. Lehto, I. Lillemäe, S. Heikkilä and D. Porter, “Fatigue strength analysis of laser-hybrid welds in thin plate cosidering actual weld geometry,” International Journal of Fatigue, vol. 87, pp. 1–19, 2015.
K. H. Li and Y. M. Zhang, “Consumable Double-Electrode GMAW — Part 1: The Process,” Welding Journal, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 11–17, 2008.
N. Arif and H. Chung, “Alternating current-gas metal arc welding for application to thick plates,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 222. pp. 75–83, 2015.
J. Feng, H. Zhang and P. He, “The CMT short-circuiting metal transfer process and its use in thin aluminium sheets welding,” Materials and Design, vol. 30 no. 5, pp. 1850-1852, 2009.
M. Sunar, B. S. Yilbas and K. Boran, “Thermal and stress analysis of a sheet metal in welding,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 123-129, 2006.
D. Deng, Y. Zhou, T. Bi and X. Liu, “Experimental and numerical investigations of welding distortion induced by CO2 gas arc welding in thin-plate bead-on joints,” Materials and Design, vol. 52, pp. 720–729, 2013.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors transfer copyright to the publisher as part of a journal publishing agreement with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after the manuscript is accepted, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).