Fabrication of Porous Titanium-Hydroxyapatite Composite via Powder Metallurgy with Space Holder Method

  • M.Y. Zakaria
  • A.B. Sulong
  • M.I. Ramli
  • B. Ukwueze
  • W.S.W. Harun
  • R.L. Mahmud


The porous structure of metals has been attracting a growing interest, particularly the use of titanium for bone implants as it promotes cell growth and matches the elastic modulus of the human bone. A porous titanium-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA) composite was successfully fabricated through the powder metallurgy route using the space holder method. Ti, HA and NaCl space holder were mixed with a binder system consisting of palm stearin (PS) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The mixture was later put through a hot press process at a pressure of 20 bars and a temperature of 150 °C. The binders were removed in a two-step process; solvent and thermal de-binding, followed by sintering in a high vacuum furnace at 1300 °C for 5 hours holding time. The Ti-HA at the ratio of 9:1 possessed the best compressive strength and the strength was in the range of 2-70 MPa, which is the range for the trabecular bone of humans. The XRD analysis revealed the existence of a new β-TCP phase due to the decomposition of the HA at a high temperature which resulted in biocompatibility, thereby, indicating a promising prospect for the use of the material in medical implants in the future.


Download data is not yet available.


S. Shuib, B. Sahari, A. A. Shokri and C. S. Chai, “The design improvement of hip implant for Total Hip Replacement (THR)”, Jurnal Kejuruteraan, vol. 20, pp. 107-113, 2008.

M. Jia, D. Zhang, J. Liang and B. Gabbitas, “Porosity, microstructure, and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts fabricated by powder compact forging”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 2015-2029, 2017.

A. M. Omran, K. D. Woo, D. S. Kang, G. T. Abdel-Gaber, H. Fouad, H. S. Abdo and K. A. Khalil, “Fabrication and evaluation of porous Ti–HA bio-nanomaterial by leaching process”, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 372-379, 2015.

A. Vladescu, S. C. Padmanabhan, F. Ak Azem, M. Braic, I. Titorencu, I. Birlik, M. A. Morris and V. Braic, “Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the sputtered Ti doped hydroxyapatite”, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 63, pp. 314-325, 2016.

A. Zargarian, M. Esfahanian, J. Kadkhodapour and S. Ziaei-Rad, “Numerical simulation of the fatigue behavior of additive manufactured titanium porous lattice structures”, Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 60, pp. 339-347, 2016.

X. Jian, C. Hao, Q. Guibao, Y. Yang and L. Xuewei, “Investigation on relationship between porosity and spacer content of titanium foams”, Materials & Design, vol. 88, pp. 132-137, 2015.

X. Wang, S. Xu, S. Zhou, W. Xu, M. Leary, P. Choong, M. Qian, M. Brandt and Y. M. Xie, “Topological design and additive manufacturing of porous metals for bone scaffolds and orthopaedic implants: A review”, Biomaterials, vol. 83, pp. 127-141, 2016.

H. B. Hu, C. J. Lin, R. Hu and Y. Leng, “A study on hybrid bioceramic coatings of HA/poly(vinyl acetate) co-deposited electrochemically on Ti–6Al–4V alloy surface”, Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 20, no. 1–2, pp. 209-214, 2002.

K. A. Khor, Y. W. Gu, D. Pan and P. Cheang, “Microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed HA/YSZ/Ti–6Al–4V composite coatings”, Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 18, pp. 4009-4017, 2004.

E. Karimi, J. Khalil-Allafi and V. Khalili, “Electrophoretic deposition of double-layer HA/Al composite coating on NiTi”, Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 58, pp. 882-890, 2016.

G. Zhao, L. Xia, B. Zhong, G. Wen, L. Song and X. Wang, “Effect of milling conditions on the properties of HA/Ti feedstock powders and plasma-sprayed coatings”, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 251, pp. 38-47, 2014.

J. Zhao, X. Lu, K. Duan, L. Y. Guo, S. B. Zhou and J. Weng, “Improving mechanical and biological properties of macroporous HA scaffolds through composite coatings”, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 159-166, 2009.

F. M. Miroiu, G. Socol, A. Visan, N. Stefan, D. Craciun, V. Craciun, G. Dorcioman, I. N. Mihailescu, L. E. Sima, S. M. Petrescu, A. Andronie, I. Stamatin, S. Moga and C. Ducu, “Composite biocompatible hydroxyapatite–silk fibroin coatings for medical implants obtained by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation”, Materials Science and Engineering: B, vol. 169, no. 1–3, pp. 151-158, 2010.

A. H. Mohamad Dom, I. Jauhari, S. Yazdanparast and H. M. Khalid, “Embedment of HA/Ti composite on superplastic titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V)”, Materials Science and Engineering: A, vol. 527, no. 21–22, pp. 5831-5836, 2010.

E.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Jeong, H.-C. Choe and W. A. Brantley, “Surface phenomena of HA/TiN coatings on the nanotubular-structured beta Ti–29Nb–5Zr alloy for biomaterials”, Applied Surface Science, vol. 258, no. 6, pp. 2083-2087, 2012.

M. R. Mansur, J. Wang and C. C. Berndt, “Microstructure, composition and hardness of laser-assisted hydroxyapatite and Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings”, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 232, pp. 482-488, 2013.

D. He, P. Wang, P. Liu, X. Liu, F. Ma, W. Li, X. Chen, J. Zhao and H. Ye, “Preparation of hydroxyapatite-titanium dioxide coating on Ti6Al4V substrates using hydrothermal-electrochemical method”, Journal Wuhan University of Technology, Materials Science Edition, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 461-467, 2016.

R. Baptista, D. Gadelha, M. Bandeira, D. Arteiro, M. I. Delgado, A. C. Ferro and M. Guedes, “Characterization of titanium-hydroxyapatite biocomposites processed by dip coating”, Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 263-272, 2016.

J.-K. Chang, C.-H. Chen, K.-Y. Huang and G.-J. Wang, “Eight-year results of Hydroxyapatite-coated hip arthroplasty”, The Journal of Arthroplasty, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 541-546, 2006.

E. S. Thian, N. H. Loh, K. A. Khor and S. B. Tor, “Microstructures and mechanical properties of powder injection molded Ti-6Al-4V/HA powder”, Biomaterials, vol. 23, no. 14, pp. 2927-2938, 2002.

A. Arifin, A. B. Sulong, N. Muhamad, J. Syarif and M. I. Ramli, “Powder injection molding of HA/Ti6Al4V composite using palm stearin as based binder for implant material”, Materials & Design, vol. 65, pp. 1028-1034, 2015.

N. D. F. Daudt, M. Bram, A. P. C. Barbosa, A. M. Laptev and C. Alves Jr, “Manufacturing of highly porous titanium by metal injection molding in combination with plasma treatment”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 239, pp. 202-209, 2017.

L. Zhang, Z. Y. He, Y. Q. Zhang, Y. H. Jiang and R. Zhou, “Rapidly sintering of interconnected porous Ti-HA biocomposite with high strength and enhanced bioactivity”, Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 67, pp. 104-114, 2016.

Z. Wang, X. Jiao, P. Feng, X. Wang, Z. Liu and F. Akhtar, “Highly porous open cellular TiAl-based intermetallics fabricated by thermal explosion with space holder process”, Intermetallics, vol. 68, pp. 95-100, 2016.

Y. Qi, K. G. Contreras, H.-D. Jung, H.-E. Kim, R. Lapovok and Y. Estrin, “Ultrafine-grained porous titanium and porous titanium/magnesium composites fabricated by space holder-enabled severe plastic deformation”, Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 59, pp. 754-765, 2016.

S. Özbilen, D. Liebert, T. Beck and M. Bram, “Fatigue behavior of highly porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy with temporary space holders”, Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 60, pp. 446-457, 2016.

B. Arifvianto and J. Zhou, “Fabrication of Metallic Biomedical Scaffolds with the Space Holder Method: A Review”, Materials, vol. 7, no. 5, 2014.

Y. Torres, J. J. Pavón and J. A. Rodríguez, “Processing and characterization of porous titanium for implants by using NaCl as space holder”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 212, no. 5, pp. 1061-1069, 2012.

M. R. Raza, A. B. Sulong, N. Muhamad, M. N. Akhtar and J. Rajabi, “Effects of binder system and processing parameters on formability of porous Ti/HA composite through powder injection molding”, Materials & Design, vol. 87, pp. 386-392, 2015.

F. Li, J. Li, G. Xu, G. Liu, H. Kou and L. Zhou, “Fabrication, pore structure and compressive behavior of anisotropic porous titanium for human trabecular bone implant applications”, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, vol. 46, pp. 104-114, 2015.

C. Xiang, Y. Zhang, Z. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Huang and H. Tang, “Preparation and compressive behavior of porous titanium prepared by space holder sintering process”, Procedia Engineering, vol. 27, pp. 768-774, 2012.

S. Bansal, V. Chauhan, S. Sharma, R. Maheshwari, A. Juyal and S. Raghuvanshi, “Evaluation of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion”, Indian Journal of Orthopaedics, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 234-239, 2009.

How to Cite
Zakaria, M., Sulong, A., Ramli, M., Ukwueze, B., Harun, W., & Mahmud, R. (1). Fabrication of Porous Titanium-Hydroxyapatite Composite via Powder Metallurgy with Space Holder Method. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (JAMT), 12(1), 37-48. Retrieved from https://jamt.utem.edu.my/jamt/article/view/4256