A Universal Design Method for Reflecting Physical Characteristics of Diverse Users: A Case of a Bicycle Frame
Research into universal design is necessitated by the adaptation to a worldwide aging society and need for companies to develop internationalization strategies. However, a general design approach for accommodating diverse users’ needs has still not emerged. The issue of how to address the physical characteristics of diverse users and needs in a design process is critical. In this study, a set-based universal design was proposed to obtain diverse design solution sets for users with diverse requirements. Both product attribute information such as the dimension of products and the physical characteristics of diverse users as design variables were defined. Furthermore, these design variables were defined as ranged values to accommodate diverse users. As a case study, the proposed method to the design problem of a bicycle frame was applied. This case study defined the height of users, each dimension of bicycle frames, and range of knee joint motion as design variables and constraint condition respectively. By applying the proposed universal design method, diverse bicycle frames including four different types of bicycle frames beyond conventional bicycle frame that satisfy all users were obtained. The suitability of the proposed design method for obtaining diverse ranged design solution sets that accommodate the variability in physical characteristics of diverse users was also discussed.
R. Sims, “Design for all: methods and data to support designers,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Health Ergonomics and Design, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK, 2003.
K. Nakajima, N. Kawabata and T. Tatsumi, “The Studies on the Selling of the Universal Design Goods”, Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Mie University Social Science, vol. 60, pp. 135-151, 2009.
T. Chihara, S. Ohyama and A. Seo, “Formulation of Ergonomic Design Problem with Considering the Response to Individual Difference“, Transactions of The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Series, vol. c. 79, no. 799, pp. 800-813, 2013.
M. Inoue, Y. E. Nahm, S. Okawa and H. Ishikawa, “Design Support System by Combination of 3D-CAD and CAE with Preference Set-based Design Method“, Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 41-53, 2010.
M. Inoue, Y. E. Nahm and H. Ishikawa, “Application of Preference Set-Based Design Method to Multilayer Porous Materials for Sound Absorbency and Insulation“, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1151-1160. 2013.
M. Inoue, Y. E. Nahm and H. Ishikawa, “Collaborative Engineering among Designers with Different Preferences: Application of the Preference Set-Based Design to the Design Problem of an Automotive Front-Side Frame“, Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 252-267, 2013.
N. Yata, T. Furukawa and Y. Manabe, “Determinants of metallic perception based on subjective evaluation (Material Appearance, Color and Visual Information) “, Journal of the Color Science Association of Japan, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 124-131, 2013.
J. Sanui and M. Inui, “Phenomenological Approach to The Evaluation of Places: A study on the construct system associated with place evaluation: 1“, Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan, vol. 367, pp. 15-22, 1986.
S. Yano, K. Ijiri, S. Nagata, H. Suzuki and S. Fujii, “Promoting Greater Use of Pubic Transports though Rent- a- bicycle System –A Case Study Conducted in the Katsurazaka Area of Kyoto – “, Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, vol. 3, no. 22, pp 228-235, 2011.
Japanese Industrial Standards Committee, Bicycles for General Use (JIS D 9301:2013). Tokyo: Japanese Standards Association, pp. 1-94, 2013.
Japanese Industrial Standards Committee, - Chainwheels and Cranks (JIS D 9415:2008). Tokyo: Japanese Standards Association, pp. 1-24, 2008.
National Institute of Technology and Evaluation. (2002). Human Characteristics Database [Online]. Available: http://www.tech.nite.go.jp/human/jp/contents/cindex/database.html
K. Yonemoto, S. Ishigami and T. Kondo, “Display and measurement method of joint motion“, The Japanese Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 207-217, 1995.
F. Baino, “Evaluation of the relationship between the body positioning and the postural comfort of non-professinal cyclists: a new approach“, The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 59-65, 2011.
W. Van Hoof, K. Volkaerts, K. O’Sullivan, S. Verschueren and W. Dankaerts, “Comparing lower lumbar kinematics in cyclists with low back pain (flexion pattern) versus asymptomatic controls – field study using a wireless posture monitoring system“. Manual Therapy, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 312-317, 2012.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors transfer copyright to the publisher as part of a journal publishing agreement with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after the manuscript is accepted, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).