Effect of Annealing Time on Resistivity of Kenaf Fiber Modified Indium Zinc Oxide Prepared Via Dip Coating Process

  • O. Edynoor
  • A.R.M. Warikh
  • T. Moriga
  • K. Murai
  • E. Mohammad
  • M.R. Salleh


This paper reviewed the annealing time effect on resistivity of kenaf fiber modified indium zinc oxide (KF-IZO) as a functional material. Firstly, kenaf fiber (KF) had undergone alkaline surface treatment using Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution with 5 % concentration. Dip coating process was applied in order to deposit amorphous IZO (In/Zn : 6.0 %) solution at room temperatures, 27ᵒC at 5 mm/s dipping rate. The thin film built up was annealed at 150ᵒC for 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours. Electrical resistivity was tested by Four Probe Method with copper attachment to determine the resistance of KF-IZO. As a result, KF-IZO with 4 hours annealing time showed the lowest resistivity with 0.12 Ω.mm while the highest resistivity 12.62 Ω.mm was shown by 16 hours annealing time. Surface morphology was observed under optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and SEMEDX to reveal coating distribution, elemental analysis and imperfection of KF-IZO. Moreover, the entire KF-IZO samples image illustrated revealed no significant fiber damages.


Download data is not yet available.


X. Shu-wen, “A Study of Annealing Time Effects on the Properties of

Al:ZnO”, Physics Procedia 25, 345 – 349, 2012.

S.E. Yamny and M.A. Rafea, “Preparation and Characterization of ZnO:In Transparent Conductor by Low Cost Dip Coating Technique”, J Mod Phys (3), pp. 1060-1069, 2012.

V. Craciun, C. Martin, G. Socol, D. Tanner, H.C. Swart, N. Becherescu, D. Craciun, “Optical properties of amorphous indium zinc oxide thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition”, Appl. Surf. Sci., Vol. 306, 52–55, 2014.

J.H. Lee and B.O. Park, “Transparent conducting ZnO:Al, In and Sn thin films deposited by the sol–gel method”, Thin Solid Films 426, 94–99, 2003.

N.L. Dehuff., E.S. Kettenring, D. Hong, H.Q. Chiang, J.F. Wager, R. L. Hoffman, C.H. Park and D.A. Keszler “Transparent thin-film transistors with zinc indium oxide channel layer”. J Appl. Phys., Vol. 97 (6), 2005.

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes”. Nature Photonics, Vol. 6 (12), 809- 817, 2012.

T. Minami, “Substitution of transparent conducting oxide thin films for indium tin oxide transparent electrode applications”. Thin solid films, Vol. 516 (7), 1314-1321, 2008.

P.S. Patil, “Versatility of chemical Spray Pyrolisis Technique”, Mater

Chem and Phys, Vol. 59 (3), 185-198, 1999.

L. Sunghwan, B. Brian and C.P. David, “Amorphous structure and

electrical performance of low-temperature annealed amorphous indium

zinc oxide transparent thin film transistors”, Thin solid films 520, 3764-

, 2012.

L. Yanli, L. Yufang and Z. Halbo, “ZnO-based transparent conductive thin films: doping, performance and processing”, J. Nanomater., Vol. 2013, 1-10,

I.A.R. Saiful and F.A.S. Noor, “Concurrent optimization of the mechanical and electrical properties of polyaniline modified kenaf paper”, Cellulose Chem. Technol., 49 (2), 195-202, 2015.

E. Osman, A.R.M. Warikh, T. Moriga, K. Murai and M.E.A. Manaf,

“Transparent Coating Oxide – Indium Zinc Oxide as Conductive Coating: A Review”, Reviews on Advanced Materials Science 49 (2), 150-157.

H. Kalaycıoglu and G. Nemli, “Producing composite particleboard from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stalks”, Ind. Crops Prod. 24, 177-180, 2006.

S.A. Lee and M.A. Eiteman, “Ground kenaf core as a filtration aid”, Ind. Crops Prod., 13, 155-161, 2001.

E. Osman, A.R.M. Warikh, M.E.A. Manaf, E. Mohamad, M.R. Salleh and T. Ito, “Hygrothermal effect mechanical and thermal properties of filament wound hybrid composite”, J Adv. Manuf. Technol., Spc. Issue 3rd TMAC Symposium 2016, 1-12, 2016.

S.J. Lips, G.M.I. de Heredia, R.G.O. den Kamp and J.E. van Dam,

“Water absorption characteristics of kenaf core to use as animal bedding material”, Ind. Crops Prod., 29, 73-79, 2009.

A. Tsakonas, V. Stergiou, M. Polissiou, K. Akoumianakis and H.C. Passam, “Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) based substrates for the production of compact plants”, Ind. Crops Prod., 21, 223-227, 2005.

Y. Liu, Y. Li and H. Zeng, “ZnO-Based Transparent Conductive Thin Films: Doping, Performance, and Processing”, J Nanomater, 1-9, 2012.

B. K. Tan, Y. C. Ching, S. C. Poh, L. C. Abdullah and S. N. Gan, “A Review of Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Based Composites: Application and Opportunity”, Polymers, 7(11), 2205-2222, 2015.

Y.G Wang, S.P Lau, H.W Lee, S.F Yu, B.K Tay, X.H Zhang and H.H Hing, “Photoluminescence study of ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of Zn metallic films in air”, J Appl. Phys., 94: 354–358, 2003.

J. Cho, J. Nah, M.S. Oh, J. H Song, K.H Yoon, H. J Jung and W.K Choi, “Enhancement of Photoluminescence and Electrical Properties of Ga-Doped ZnO Thin Film Grown on

K. Ozaki and M. Gomi, “Strong Ultraviolet Photoluminescence in

Polycrystalline ZnO Sputtered Films”, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1, 41: 5614–5617, 2002.

K. Ogata, K . Sakurai , Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita and K. Matsushige, “Effects of thermal annealing of ZnO layers grown by MBE” J Cryst. Growth, 214/215: 312–315, 2000.

N. K. Seng, M. K. Ahmad, N. S. Jasmin, N. Zainal, N. Nayan, S. C. Fhong, A. B. Suriani and A. Mohamed, “Effect of annealing time on aluminium doped tin oxide (SnO2) as a transparent conductive oxide”, ARPN J Eng. Appl. Sci. Vol. 11, No. 14, 2016.

M.R. Ishak, S.M. Sapun S. M. and Leman Z, “Characterization of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibres tensile and thermal properties”, J Therm Anal Calorim, 109, 981 – 989, 2012.

E. Osman, T. Moriga, K. Murai and A.R.M. Warikh, “Study of Morphology and Electrical Properties of Indium Zinc Oxide-Modified Kenaf Fiber”, Ind. Crops Prod 100, 171-175.

How to Cite
Edynoor, O., Warikh, A., Moriga, T., Murai, K., Mohammad, E., & Salleh, M. (2017). Effect of Annealing Time on Resistivity of Kenaf Fiber Modified Indium Zinc Oxide Prepared Via Dip Coating Process. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (JAMT), 11(1(1), 139-150. Retrieved from https://jamt.utem.edu.my/jamt/article/view/2859

Most read articles by the same author(s)