Precision Joining of Steel-Aluminum Hybrid Structure by Clinching Process
Clinching joining has become an alternative technique to conventional spot welding. This innovative joining technology can reduce the production costs and cycle times, and also offers a great prospective for a new product design and manufacturing. Without a better understanding on physical phenomena associated with the clinching process, the correcting unacceptable clinched joint is extremely costly and impossible for some cases. In this study, the overlap joining of low carbon steel and aluminum alloy in clinching process was experimentally and numerically investigated. The tensile-shear strength of overlap-clinched joints was evaluated by tensile-shear test. This test also was used to study the deformation and failure of clinched joints under tensile-shear loading. The results showed that the higher press load has a great influence for achieving better interlocking between steel-aluminum hybrid structures. Insufficient interlocking and thin neck thickness lead to the failure of clinched joints. It also was confirmed that the most critical region of the clinching tool located at the radius corner of punch and die. Development of simplified engineering approaches based on numerical simulation and correlations with experimental data could be very beneficial to industrial applications.
J. Mucha, L. Kascak and E. Spisak, “Joining the car-body sheets using clinching process with various thickness and material property arrangements”, Achieves of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 135-148, 2011.
L. Kascak and E. Spisak, “Clinching as a non-standard method for joining materials of dissimilar properties”, Mechanika, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 32-40, 2012.
M. Israel, R. Mauermann and J. Schellnock, “Thick sheet clinching: joining up to 20 mm total thickness”, Advanced Shipping and Ocean Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-10, 2013.
M.I.S. Ismail, Y. Okamoto, A. Okada, Y. Uno and K. Ueoka, “Direct micro-joining of flexible printed circuit and metal electrode by pulsed Nd:YAG laser”, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 321-329, 2012.
J. Yang, B. Cao and Q. Lu, “The effect of welding energy on the microstructural and mechanical properties of ultrasonic-welded copper joints”, Materials, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 193 (13 pages), 2017.
Ion, J.C., Laser Processing of Engineering Materials. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005.
C.J. Lee, S.H. Lee, J.M. Lee, B.H. Kim, B.M. Kim and D.C. Ko, “Design of hole-clinching process for joining CFRP and aluminum alloy sheet”, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1151-1157, 2014.
M.R.G. Silva, E.A.S. Marques and L.F.M. da Silva, “Behaviour under impact of mixed adhesive joints for the automotive industry”, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 835-853, 2016.
J.M. Allin, “Disbond detection in adhesive joints using low-frequency ultrasound,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Mech. Eng., Univ. of London, London, United Kingdom, 2002.
L. Calabrese, G. Galtieri, C. Borsellino, G. Di Bella and E. Proverbio, “Durability of hybrid clinch-bonded steel/aluminum joints in salt spray environment”, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 3137-3147, 2016.
M.M. Eshtayeh, M. Hrairi and A.K.M. Mohiuddin, “Clinching process for joining dissimilar materials: state of the art”, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 179-195, 2016.
T. Wen, Q. Huang, Q. Liu, W.X. Ou and S. Zhang, “Joining different metallic sheets without protrusion by flat hole clinching process”, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 217-225, 2016.
M. Carboni, S. Beretta and M. Monno, “Fatigue behavior of tensile-shear loaded clinched joints”, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 178-190, 2006.
C.J. Lee, J.Y. Kim, S.K. Lee, D.C. Ko and B.M. Kim, “Parametric study on mechanical clinching process for joining aluminum alloy and high-strength steel sheets”, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 24, pp. 123-126, 2010.
F. Lambiase and A. Di Ilio, “Finite element analysis of material flow in mechanical clinching with extensible dies”, Journal Material Engineering Performance, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1629-1636, 2013.
Y. Abe, T. Kato and K. Mori, “Joining of aluminium alloy and mild steel sheets using mechanical clinching”, International Materials Science Forum, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 561-565, 2007.
Y. Abe, K. Mori and T. Kato, “Joining of high strength steel and aluminium alloy sheets by mechanical clinching with dies for control of metal flow”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 212, no. 4, pp. 884–889, 2012.
X. He, “Recent development in finite element analysis of clinched joints”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 48, pp. 607-612, 2010.
J.P. Varis, “Ensuring the integrity in clinching process”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 174, no. 1-3, pp. 277-285, 2006.
A.S. Buang, “Experimental and numerical investigation of clinching process on dissimilar material,” Master thesis, Dept. Mech. Manuf. Eng., Univ. Putra Malaysia, 2017.
X. He, L. Zhao, H. Yang, B. Xing, Y. Wang, C. Deng, F. Gu and A. Ball, “Investigations of strength and energy absorption of clinched joints”, Computational Materials Science, vol. 94, pp. 58-65, 2014.
A.A. De Paula, M.T.P. Aguilar, A.E.M. Pertence and P.R. Cetlin, “Finite element simulations of the clinch joining of metallic sheets”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 182, no. 1-3, pp. 352-357, 2007.
S. Zhao, F. Xu, J. Guo and X. Han, “experimental and numerical research for the failure behavior of the clinched joint using modified Rousselier model”, J Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 214, no. 10, pp. 2134-2145, 2014.
X. He, F. Liu, B. Xing, H. Yang, Y. Wang, F. Gu and A. Ball, “Numerical and experimental investigations of extensible die clinching”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 74, no. 9-12, pp. 1229-1236, 2014.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors transfer copyright to the publisher as part of a journal publishing agreement with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after the manuscript is accepted, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).