Direct Laser Fabrication Method for a Binary Diffractive Optical Element
Binary-type diffractive optics elements (DOEs) are essential components when measuring flow fields. In this paper, a fabrication process for binary-type DOEs was proposed based on direct laser lithography. Two important points must be considered while fabricating DOE . The first was the blurring effect of the lithographic source beam, and the second was the internal spacing issue of the DOE. An effective means of reducing the blurring effect by adjusting the lithography exposure time was suggested. In addition, a method to check the internal spacing was also presented in this paper. A binary-type DOE was successfully fabricated using the proposed process and its optical performance was verified in comparison with the simulation results.
H. J. Tiziani, S. Reichelt, C. Pruss, M. Rocktaeschel and U. Hofbauer, “Testing of aspheric surfaces,” in Proceeding of SPIE, vol. 4440, pp. 109-119, 2001.
J. M. Asfour and A. G. Poleshchuk, “Asphere testing with a Fizeau interferometer based on a combined computer-generated hologram,” Journal of Optical Society of America A, vol. 23, no.1, pp. 172-178, 2006.
A. Shpunt and B. Pesach, “Optical pattern projection,” US Patent, US 2010/0284082 A1, 2010.
B. Pesach and Z. Mor, “Projectors of structured light,” US Patent, US 8,749,796 B2, 2014.
D. K. Cohen, W. H. Gee, M. Ludeke and J. Lewkowicz, “Automatic focus control: the astigmatic lens approach,” Applied Optics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 565-570, 1984.
H. G. Rhee, D. I. Kim and Y. W. Lee, “Realization and performance evaluation of high speed autofocusing for direct laser lithography,” Review of Scientific Instrumentals, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 073103/1-073103/5, 2009.
M. Bruchhausen, F. Guillard and F. Lemoine, “Instantaneous measurement of two-dimensional temperature distributions by means of two-color planar laser induced fluorescence.” Experiments in Fluids, vol. 38, no. 1, pp.123-131, 2005.
J. J. Kim and D. Y. Kim, "Implementation of Image-based Virtual Fence for Surveillance Area Setup", Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 2145-2152, 2015.
V. V. Kotlyar, P. G. Seraphimovich and V. A. Soifer, “An iterative algorithm for designing diffractive optical elements with regularization”, Optics Lasers in Engineering, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 261-268, 1998.
H. Kim, B. Yang, J. Park and B. Lee, “A study on the Convergence of Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm for Optimal Design of Diffractive Optical Elements,” Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD, vol. 40, no.5, pp.298-311, 2003.
M. Haruna, M. Takahashi, K. Wakahayashi and H. Nishihara, “Laser beam lithographed micro-Fresnel lenses,” Applied Optics, vol. 29, no. 34 pp. 5120-5126, 1990.
M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Optical Engineering, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 3556-3567, 1994.
A. G. Poleshchuk, E. G. Churin, V. P. Koronkevich, V. P. Korolkov, A. A. Kharussov, V. V. Cherkashin, V. P. Kiryanov, A. V. Kiryanov, S. A. Kokarev and A. G. Verhoglyad, “Polar coordinate laser pattern generator for fabrication of diffractive optical elements with arbitrary structure,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1295-1301, 1999.
H.G. Rhee and Y.W. Lee, “Improvement of linewidth in laser beam lithographed computer generated hologram,” Optics Express, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1734-1740, 2010.
L. Deck and P. de Groot, “High-speed noncontact profiler based on scanning white-light interferometer,” Applied Optics, vol. 33, no. 31, pp. 7334-7338, 1994.
Y. Xie, Z. Lu and F. Li, “Lithographic fabrication of large curved hologram by laser writer,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1810-1814, 2004.
A. Harasaki, J. Schmit and J. C. Wyant, “Improved vertical-scanning interferometry,” Applied Optics, vol. 39, no. 13, pp. 2107-2115, 2000.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors transfer copyright to the publisher as part of a journal publishing agreement with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after the manuscript is accepted, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).